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Grading and Awarding Academic Credit and Academic Policies and Procedures

WISR’s Methods for Evaluating Student Achievement

WISR faculty evaluate each student’s learning using

  1. the criteria articulated in the course learning objectives,
  2. the degree program and course learning objectives.

The degree program objectives are organized in large part, according to learning goal areas and meta competencies important to the learning of all WISR students, outlined in separate sections under each degree program. Faculty use these objectives, along with the stated objectives for each course, and the processes and evidence discussed below, to provide constructive feedback to the student, and to determine when to assign a student credit for having completed a course.

Grading and Evaluations of Student Learning by Faculty at WISR

Student work at WISR is graded Credit/No Credit.

Evaluations of student work are made by each person’s primary faculty advisers through: frequent individual, faculty-student consultations, and the faculty member’s review of the student’s written papers and student submission of the detailed end-of-course self-assessment. A strong effort is made to engage each student in habitually evaluating her or his own efforts. Open, candid discussions of a student’s strengths, progress, and areas needing attention are part of many faculty-student consultations. At the same time, students are encouraged to do repeated revisions and rewrites of their papers and self-assessments, until they have been brought to a level of quality acceptable to both the student and the teacher. WISR faculty members try to separate the process of evaluating students’ work from the penalties and insults to students’ pride that are considered necessary parts of traditional, summary grading systems.

WISR relies not on graded, written, question-answer examinations, but on students’ abilities to write clearly about subjects that they develop, and to respond articulately to questions about what and how they have learned. Qualitative written and verbal evaluations are used instead of single-letter or number grades, and faculty members making assessments are expected to know how any individual student’s work-product is related to: course and degree program learning objectives, WISR’s meta-competencies, and the student’s previous efforts and professional and personal educational objectives. Over time, each student’s learning portfolio develops a very substantial body of evidence about the student’s learning and progress, including for each course: the WISR faculty-developed course syllabus, the student’s paper for the course, the student’s self-assessment, and the faculty assessment of the student’s learning.

Rubrics to be used by WISR faculty

–in evaluating student learning and submitted work

These rubrics are guidelines, and some faculty may emphasize some areas more than others, depending on the course and the particular assignment they are evaluating. Also, it is expected that faculty will discuss these guidelines, over time, informally, and in faculty meetings. To compare notes on the usefulness, relative importance, and meaning of different areas, and that they will likely be re-interpreted and even modified, as indicated. as well as each written assignment submitted by students (e.g., module assignments, course term paper, student self-assessments).  Access the Rubrics in three file formats:

Rubrics docx

 

Rubrics odt

 

Rubrics pdf

 

At the end of each course, the faculty member articulates on an “Evaluation of Student Performance” form, their evaluation of student performance in each of main learning assignments. They only submit a final version of the form to WISR’s administration when they have determined that the student has met the requirements and objectives of the course, and of each particular assignment for the course. In comments on a number of areas of student performance, the faculty member also provides the student with feedback on: noteworthy qualities evidenced in fulfilling the assignment, areas for needed improvements in future coursework, important strengths evidenced, and/or other suggestions. The faculty member notes which of the degree program objectives that the student has addressed during that particular course, and makes other comments that might be helpful to the student in their future learning.

With courses that are offered for variable credit (mostly only independent study courses and internship/practica), the faculty member awards credit based on the following: 1) WISR faculty only award credit if the student’s work indicates learning and competency accomplishments comparable to what students would typically receive for that number of semester units (typically 5 semester units, at WISR) in an accredited program performing at a grade of “B” or higher for graduate study and a “C” or higher for undergraduate study.  As a further frame of reference, for example, a student earning 5 semester units of EdD program credit, must demonstrate that they have completed the appropriate proportion of that degree program in which they are enrolled. For example, with five units in the EdD program, it would be 1/12 (5/60ths) of WISR’s EdD program.

Furthermore, WISR faculty only award credit if the student’s work indicates high quality engagement in learning at WISR, similar to the well-known Oxford model of education, and with learning and competency accomplishments comparable to what students would typically receive for the particular number of semester units associated with that course, in an accredited program, if the student were performing at a grade of “B” or higher for graduate study and a “C” or higher for undergraduate study. Generally, at WISR, students are expected to aspire toward “A” level work, and when a student performs a bit lower than that, faculty provide the student with the necessary feedback to increase the likelihood of outstanding work in future courses and studies.

Besides building on each student’s own intellectual and professional interests, each course must result in the student’s meeting the course’s learning objectives, in progressing toward the learning objectives for the degree program in which they are enrolled. This includes becoming proficient and demonstrating competence in a range of theories and practices within their major field, and in making progress in the meta-competencies embraced by WISR’s approach to learning.

 

Faculty Feedback on Drafts of Student Papers and Theses

Faculty make every effort to give students rapid feedback on drafts of papers and theses. Typically, the faculty gives students feedback on papers that are 20 pages or less, within 7 to 10 days. Faculty may need as much as three to four weeks to read and give feedback on longer papers, and especially on drafts of theses and dissertations. Faculty are available to set up hour-long conferences with students, either face-to-face, or by phone once every week or two, as needed by students. Generally, it is best to set up appointments a week to 10 days in advance, so students can coordinate their own schedules of availability with the openings in the faculty member’s schedule. Faculty comment on the substance and content of the student’s paper, on the clarity and organization of the paper, and on grammar, spelling and mechanics. Faculty encourage students to write in their own voice, and they encourage the use of concrete examples and illustrations of general points and concepts. Critical analysis and an awareness of “bigger picture” issues and ideas are also encouraged. Students are not expected to address every single faculty criticism and suggestion in re-writing their draft, but rather to consider thoughtfully and carefully the faculty’s suggestions, and then to make sufficient revisions to show a substantial and worthwhile improvement in the paper.

Assigning Credit to Courses at WISR

 

Credit is assigned based on the extent to which a student is expected to demonstrate a substantial level of learning and accomplishment, in a course, thesis or independent study project or practicum, in two broad realms—1) The quantity and quality of the student’s engagement in learning at WISR, and 2) the learning outcomes and competencies demonstrated by the student, based on faculty assessment of student learning–through mentoring discussions, small group seminars, papers and projects completed, and self-assessments written by the student pertaining to the evidence of their learning process and outcomes.  

Learning outcomes used in the granting of credit are specific to each course, and also to the learning objectives of the student’s chosen degree program, which are closely related to progress in WISR’s  core meta-competencies.

WISR’s expectations for the quantity and quality of student engagement in learning at WISR approximate that of the traditional “Carnegie unit” which grants one semester unit for each 45 hours of participation in learning.

In addition to this substantial, high quality engagement in learning at WISR—similar to the well-known Oxford model of education—WISR faculty only award graduate credit if the student’s work indicates learning and competency accomplishments comparable to what students would typically receive for that number of semester units (typically 5 semester units, at WISR) in an accredited program performing at a grade of “B” or higher. For undergraduate credit, the standard is performing at a grade of “C” or higher. 

In assessing student work, and granting credit, WISR faculty use the above stated degree program learning outcomes, as well as the stated learning outcomes for each particular course, to evaluate student progress as demonstrated by evidence from mentoring discussions, small group seminars, papers and projects completed, and self-assessments written by the student pertaining to the evidence of their learning process and outcomes.

Evidence Used in Awarding Academic Credit

Academic papers, professional work and community work, multimedia products (including audios, videos, photos and web pages), creative/artistic works, faculty and professional observations of student learning, participation in WISR projects and seminars, and written, reflective analyses of prior experiences.  However, WISR does not grant credit for prior experiential learning alone, only for current learning that may involve current writing and analysis that draws on prior experiences.

Academic papers

Most evidence of student academic work takes this form, in part, at least. Papers may be analyses of intellectual or professional issues of interest to the student, critiques of readings they have done, critical analyses of community projects, detailed plans for educational or community projects, reports of research on community problems or issues, records of research interviews by the student about issues in professional or personal development, combinations of these types, or other serious efforts negotiated by the student and her or his faculty adviser.

Professional work and community work

WISR grants credit based on evidence of students’ educational thought and growth that emerges in the student’s community and professional work, oftentimes in the context of their major course project and action-research lab activities. For example, documents acceptable as bases for academic credit include evaluations of the student’s community and professional work by a co-worker, especially when that work was specifically discussed with the faculty adviser as a part of the student’s learning program.

Current written, reflective analyses of prior and current experiences

WISR does not grant credit for prior learning experiences, alone, only for the current learning involved with written, reflective analyses of prior experiences.  In addition, WISR does not grant credit for on-the-job activity in general, or even for achievements in the student’s work life, unless that activity has been subjected to ongoing, critical discussion by the student and the faculty adviser, for its intellectual and ethical significance, its relation to the student’s goals, and its significance for community improvement and social change. In some cases, the student’s work amounts to a faculty-supervised internship in her or his workplace, or in a community organization. In other cases, students may write reflective, critical analyses of insights and knowledge they have developed through previous professional and community involvements, or even through life experiences, in general.  For example, some students will write what amounts to an intellectual autobiography.  In such cases, students receive credit for the reflection, analysis and writing done while enrolled at WISR, but not for their work or life experiences prior to enrollment. These reflective analyses are usually designed by students, with faculty guidance and supervision, as part of the student’s action-research lab for that course. In all cases, however, the faculty adviser must have evidence of the student’s learning from the process, and of a student attitude toward learning in the work/life/community context that goes beyond unreflective performance of a job or the unanalyzed pursuit of daily living.

End-of-Course Self Assessments written and submitted by students

As discussed above, student self-assessments at the end of the course provide a further presentation and analysis of the evidence of the student’s learning in the course.  These self-assessments themselves further contribute to student learning, and they provide a valuable perspective that highlights and summarizes some of the most student’s most important activities during the course, their main areas of learning, and significant accomplishments.

Multimedia Products

Evidence of students’ learning may also include audio or video recordings of workshops given by students at their workplaces, of focused discussions on issues relevant to their WISR learning goals, and of seminars led at WISR. Students may use photographs to document their work, or in producing a photographic essay on a topic of importance. Some students have produced documentary videos and films that communicate the results and insights of their research. And, in many cases, students will combine the use of two or more of the following: audio recordings, videos or films, photographs and website development.

Creative, artistic works

Evidence of students’ learning may also include reproductions or descriptions of creative and artistic products such as videotapes, films, paintings or drawings, murals, sculptures, poems, and other imaginative literary pieces, where those products help to show the student’s thought and imagination in some coherent relation to learning goals.

Faculty, professional and/or community observations of students’ learning

Credit is granted to students who demonstrate to a faculty member their mastery of a body of knowledge, such as the literature of a subject-area. Students may also submit evidence of what other professionals and community colleagues have observed of their current projects and learning. Student reading-lists in specific subject-areas are included in their learning portfolios as partial evidence of such mastery.

Participation in WISR projects and seminars

Credit is granted to students for regular participation in both a structured series of collaborative and group learning activities, as well as active engagement in online forums, and informal collaborations with other students. More formal collaborative activities include WISR’s seminars, workshops, and community projects.

Faculty Observation of Student Performance in Doing Required and Recommended Course Assignments

Through the kinds of evidence listed above, and also in discussions with students in one-on-one mentoring and seminars, as well as by student submission of course assignments, faculty observations provide a very important form of evidence. WISR faculty are in an excellent position to evaluate the quality and quantity of student work, and the extent to which the student is meeting course learning objectives, progressing toward degree program objectives, and further developing themselves in one or more of WISR’s meta-competencies or areas of learning. In addition, at the end of each course, faculty give the student an oral exam covering the many things that they have studied and done in the course.

 Student’s End of Course Self-Assessment

The student’s studies in the course will be further guided by being aware of the self-assessment questions below. Then, at the end of the course, the student will do a written self-assessment of what they did, learned and accomplished in the course by answering a set of questions that are designed to benefit the student in at least the following several ways:

1) they will become more conscious about what they learned, and about what did and didn’t work well in their learning process; 2) they will begin to draft their narrative transcript; and 3) they will keep track of how their learning is contributing to their degree requirements and learning objectives, and WISR’s expectations of students for learning in the degree program goals and objectives.

These student self-assessments at the end of the course provide a further presentation and analysis of the evidence of the student’s learning in the course.  These self-assessments themselves further contribute to student learning, and they provide a valuable perspective that highlights and summarizes some of the most student’s most important activities during the course, their main areas of learning, and significant accomplishments.

Early in their studies, students will often have to re-write their self-assessment drafts, but it is expected that with some practice after completing several courses, only one draft will be necessary. Students should plan to spend about two hours in drafting each end of course self-assessment. Faculty sign the student’s “end of course self-assessment” and attest to the accuracy of the descriptive parts of the self-assessment.

INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS FOR ANSWERING THE SELF-ASSESSMENT FORM 

“Enter your responses to each question using as much space after each question as is needed to adequately answer the question.  You are also encouraged to seek assistance from WISR faculty—to help them in responding thoughtfully and sufficiently to each question.  Also, you may find it helpful to enter “tentative” responses to many of the questions as your study in each course unfolds.  In this way, this form may help you to assess, during the course, what you’ve accomplished thus far and what they may wish to consider doing next.”

Links to download Self-Assessment Form are included with each online course, and here:

docx (word)

odt   (open access word for mac users and others)

pdf

 

Use of Self-Assessment Form:

These questions provide a framework to help you to self-assess your learning methods and outcomes for each course of study.  Your responses also provide evidence for faculty to consider in evaluating whether or not, and how well, and in what ways, you have met the learning objectives for the course.

Name of Student:________________________________________________

Name of Course:  ______________________________________________________

 

1)         What was (were) your main purpose(s) for this course of study?  What, in particular, did you hope to learn and accomplish during the course?

2)         What were the most valuable activities you pursued during this course of study—that is, describe (those that are applicable): the areas in which you read; paper you wrote, work done in a practicum, internship, action-research lab, or additional work you did on the job, beyond your regular job duties; community-based or self-directed research (e.g., interviews conducted and with whom, networking pursued, observations made, etc.); personal reflection and note-taking; multimedia production; workshops taken; seminars participated in and collaborations with others, etc. This can usually be done in three to six sentences.

3)         Who were the WISR faculty with whom you consulted in this course?  With each faculty member, write two to four sentences on how they assisted you or contributed to your learning in these studies.  If you have suggestions for how faculty could, in the future, better assist your learning, please add those comments as well.

4)         Among those with whom you consulted or collaborated from outside WISR faculty, which people contributed the most to your studies in this course.  This may include community residents and leaders, coworkers, agency staff, professional/experts in the field, other academicians, fellow students or WISR alumni.  Write a couple sentences about the contributions of the two or three people who helped you the most, from among those outside of WISR faculty.

5)         If you participated in workshops, conferences or community events outside of WISR that contributed to these studies in this course, please indicate and list those events/activities, and write a couple sentences about the one or two that were most significant and important.

6)         Describe your participation in WISR seminars, and/or formal or informal collaboration with other students, sand discuss how they were important to your learning in this area, and write a couple of sentences about their contributions to your learning in this course.

7)         Write a one paragraph (three to five sentences) abstract of the paper you wrote for the course.

8)         Write the month you began these studies, the month completed, and write a rough draft of the personalized description of your studies in this course, beyond the general WISR course description.  That is, in three to five sentences, write what you would add to the standard WISR course description—in order to give a more detailed and accurate summary of what you did in this course.  This can then later be refined to help write your narrative transcript prior to receiving your degree.

9)         Thinking back on the process of your learning during this course of study, please write two or three sentences about each of the following:  a) how did your plans or ideas about what you wanted to do change over time and why? b) what were the positive things, if any, that came out of these changes in plans or intentions about what you wanted to do or learn? c) if you were going to do this course again, what would you do differently given what you now know? 

10)       Write five to seven sentences on the main things that you learned and accomplished in this course, and add two or three sentences that highlight the main evidence you would point to that demonstrates your learning and/or accomplishments in this course.     

11)       Tell us about the ways in which you gained access to readings (e.g., WISR library, public library or other university library, internet, readings given to you by WISR faculty, fellow students, friends or co-workers, purchase of books, use of any special databases, etc.).  In particular, discuss the role of WISR’s faculty and librarian in assisting you.

 

WISR Does Not Award Credit for Prior Experiential Learning

Under no circumstances does WISR award credit for prior experiential learning. However, WISR will accept as transfer credit, up to 30 semester units from prior experiential learning and nationally recognized exams, combined.

 

WISR’s Policy on Academic Honesty and Integrity

WISR embraces the value of learning that builds on the knowledge, efforts and experiences of others. In particular, WISR actively encourages students to collaborate with one another, and with others throughout the larger community. Academic honesty and integrity requires that students disclose and make transparent what they have learned from others, and how their learning and inquiry are indebted to, or have been importantly influenced by, others. This includes not only making the appropriate citations of the literature used in one’s papers, theses and dissertations, but it also includes acknowledging the informal contributions that others have made in shaping one’s ideas, questions and actions. WISR students are encouraged to write in their own voice, discussing how their studies and inquiries have led to their conclusion, recommendations and further lines of inquiry.

At WISR, faculty and students meet regularly and engage in continual and detailed dialogue about the student’s studies, and for this reason, faculty are usually aware of how others have contributed to student learning. Furthermore, WISR students are expected to be highly motivated and committed to genuine inquiry, and uninterested in purely expedient strategies for producing the required academic writing. Violations of academic honesty and integrity at WISR have been virtually unheard of in our decades-long history. In case of a violation, the work submitted will not be accepted for credit, and a second violation of this standard will result in dismissal from WISR. All such decisions are subject to student appeal first to WISR’s Faculty, and then to the Board of Trustees.

Nothing in this policy should discourage students from actively and fully collaborating with one another in any aspect of their studies, including a paper, project, or thesis or dissertation. Indeed, such collaboration is encouraged, and that collaboration must be disclosed by the participating students with a written description of the process of collaboration and each student’s contributions to the collaboration.

Student Rights: Grievance Procedures

A student may lodge a complaint (grievance) by communicating verbally or in writing to any instructor or administrator. Any such person contacted shall attempt to resolve the student’s complaint immediately. . In matters of the evaluation of a student’s academic work, the student may request that another faculty member, qualified in the area of study, evaluate their work. Oral and written complaints will be accepted by the Institute in any form. When submitted in writing, a simple, specific statement about the issue to be resolved should be sufficient.

If a student complains verbally and the complaint is not resolved within a reasonable time, and the student again complains about the same matter, the President of the Institute shall advise the student that the complaint must be submitted in writing. If a student complains in writing, the President of the Institute shall, within ten days of receiving the complaint, provide the student with a written response, including a summary of the Institute’s investigation and disposition of it. However, if the President is the subject of the complaint, the Chair of the Board, or a core faculty member designated by the Chair of the Board, will lead an investigation and provide the student with a written response as noted above. If the resolution requested by the student is rejected, the reasons for the rejection shall be explained.

Grievances not resolved by agreement between the student and the President of the Institute, or by the Chair of the Board or designated faculty member, may be submitted to the WISR Board of Trustees for a final decision by the Institute.

Any questions or problems concerning this institution that have not been satisfactorily answered or resolved by the Institute should be directed to the Bureau for Private Postsecondary Education, by calling (888) 370-7589 [toll-free] or by completing a complaint form at www.bppe.ca.gov

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