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BS Program Requirements and Course Descriptions

CourseworkRequirements, Options, and Descriptions

—for students enrolling after February 1, 2015

 

Overall Degree Requirements:

Of the necessary 124 semester units, 36 Units of General Education, and 60 Units in the Major are required. As noted above, 60 semester units are required courses. Up to a maximum of 90 semester units may be transferred from work done at other institutions.

 

Required Courses (all units listed are semester units)– includes 25 – 30 semester units of GE [General Education] and 30-35 semester units of Major Field Courses (total of 60 required semester units)

LD/GE Introduction to Transformative Learning and Community Leadership (includes writing and learning skills): 5 units (#101)[This course is not required for students entering with 80 or more semester units of credit]

LD/GE Introduction to Action-Research: 5 units (#111) and/or UD/GE Advanced Studies in Action-Research (#311) [both courses may be taken for 10 units of GE credit; one must be taken]

**LD/Major Overview of Issues and Strategies of Community Leadership and Social Change: 5 units (#243) and/or LD/Major Contemporary Issues and Ideas regarding Social Justice: 5 units (#141) [both courses may be taken for 10 units of major field credit; at least one must be taken]

*LD/GE Contemporary Ideas about Natural Sciences in Today’s and Tomorrow’s World: 5 units (#151)

*LD/GE Humanities and the Arts–and Leadership and Justice (#161)

****LD/GE Quantitative Reasoning: 5 units (#181)

UD/Major Advanced Studies—History of and Contemporary Issues and Ideas regarding Social Justice (#341) . . . or . . . LD/GE American History and Leadership and Justice(#162): 5 units –THESE TWO COURSES MAY EACH COUNT AS EITHER GE REQUIREMENT OR MAJOR FIELD REQUIREMENT—BOTH MAY BE TAKEN, BOTH FOR GE, BOTH FOR MAJOR, OR ONE FOR EACH GE AND MAJOR.

UD/Major Advanced Theories and Strategies of Community Leadership and Social Change: 5 units (#441)

***LD/Major UD/Major Advanced Studies in Building Bridges to One’s Future: 5 units (#402)

LD/Major Issues and Strategies of Multiculturalism: 5 units (#242) or UD/Major Advanced Studies in Multiculturalism: 5 units (#442)

UD/Major Senior Thesis: 15 units [can be pursued for only 10 units if the student has sufficient previous coursework related to the major and is transferring to WISR with 90 semester units] (#490)

*Students may have this requirement waived if they completed a humanities or natural science course of at least 5 semester units previously.

**Students entering with 80 or more semester units may have this requirement met if they have taken a substantially similar course(s) previously.

***Students entering with 80 or more semester units may have this requirement waived, if they address this meta-competency in other WISR  coursework (e.g., the Senior Thesis at WISR).

****Required of students who have not taken a college level math class in any of their transferred coursework. 

 

Other Coursework Options (45 units of coursework options, plus up to a maximum of 35 semester units of independent study and  practicum/community involvement options). . .

LD or UD/Major Community Practicum/Internship/Community Involvement: 1 – 20 semester units (#291 or #491)

LD or UD/Major or GE Directed Independent Study: 1 – 15 semester units (#293 or #493)—independent study that focuses on methods of inquiry or on studies in humanities, natural sciences, or social sciences may be counted as GE credit; study that focuses on topics related to Community Leadership, including multiculturalism, social justice, and inquiry into Community Leadership may count as major field credit. Credit for each independent study project may be for GE or Major Field Credit, but not both.  Students may pursue more than one independent study project up to a maximum of 15 semester units].

UD/GE Advanced Writing and Communications: 5 units (#371)

UD/GE Advanced Studies in Action-Research: 5 units (#311)

UD/Major Advanced Studies—History of and Contemporary Issues in Social Justice: 5 units (#341)

UD/Major Advanced Studies in Multiculturality: 5 units (#442)

UD/Major Sustainability and Social Change: 5 units (#446)

UD/Major Narrative Approaches to Professional Practice in Community Leadership: 5 units (#451)

LD/GE Methods of Personal Reflection and Transformative Learning: 5 units (#203)

UD/GE Collaborative Methods and Transformative Learning: 5 units (#304)

UD/Major Review and Assessment of Knowledge in One’s Field of Specialization: 5 units (#496)

 

Commentary on the Structure, Outline, and Nature of Most WISR Courses . . .

Note that many of these courses focus on “meta-competencies” important to learning at WISR that also necessarily enable the student to focus on their main interests. Noteworthy are the following courses: orientation to WISR way, introduction to action-research and advanced studies in action-research, senior thesis, building bridges to one’s future and advanced studies in building bridges to one’s future, collaborative methods and transformative learning, methods of personal reflection and transformative learning, advanced writing and communications, directed independent study, and community practicum/internship/job.

All courses have an initial set of requirements involving some pre-determined required readings (possibly along with a series of readings which usually involve options—e.g., between reading A or B, and then reading C or D); some pre-determined required assignments/exercises (e.g., mostly short writing and reflection assignments—designed to engage the student in beginning to think and communicate about the required material); and required interactions with other students and with faculty in at least one seminar per week (seminars are available both on site and by phone or internet). In some courses, students are required to reach out to others outside of WISR for dialogue—coworkers, family,friends, others in the community to be interviewed or contacted for discussion on course topics, for example. Following the successful completion of the initial requirements for a particular course, students then usually are expected to design, with faculty guidance and support, a personally meaningful research and/or action project (culminating in a paper) on a topic related to the course. This culminating project/paper is to build on the initial course assignments, but also go quite beyond those initial requirements to also engage the student in what he or she is interested in.

Many courses focus not only on methods of learning and inquiry, but also on certain areas of “content”—e.g., on natural sciences or American History, to expose students to ideas and readings that broaden their horizons and stretch their understanding of such fields, as well as to engage them in thinking about aspects of those areas of study that could inform their present and future endeavors. As noted above,there is typically an early phase of each of these courses (perhaps around 30% of the entire course) that engages students in the content being studied, followed by about 70% of the effort that makes use of further study of the content in ways that are very highly personalized.

The independent study coursework and the practicum/internship/job coursework involve designing a syllabus plan, with faculty guidance and subject to faculty approval. However, our experience at WISR shows that as student learning progresses on a project, the plan may well need to change, and faculty are mindful of the importance of working with students to make those changes that will positively contribute to the student’s learning outcomes and to their purposes for pursuing the project.

At the end of each course, there is an evaluation process by students and faculty which involves students making thoughtful comments to a series of self-assessment questions, including their evaluation of their learning (and the evidence of their learning) in relation to WISR’s meta-competencies across the curriculum, as well as in relation to the main objectives for the BS program and for each course. Faculty write a commentary on the student’s learning, and on the evidence presented in their completion of course assignments, the culminating paper and their end of course self-assessment. Faculty make comments on noteworthy accomplishments by the student and on the most significant evidence of student learning and accomplishments.

Course Descriptions

BS 101:  Learning the WISR Way—Introduction to Transformative Learning for Professional and Community Leadership (4 semester units)

This is an introductory course, required of WISR students in all degree programs, except for the MS in Psychology (leading to the MFT and/or LPCC license), which is designed to enable students to progress more effectively toward the successful completion of the degree program at WISR, so that students can get the most from their WISR education—in pursuing their learning passions and career interests, in developing the core meta-competencies valued at WISR, in fulfilling the learning objectives for their chosen WISR degree program, and in building bridges for themselves to the next significant things they wish to do in their lives.

BS 111:  Introduction to Action-Research (5 semester units)

Study of methods of action-research, including methods of qualitative research and participatory research. This course will introduce the student to ways that research can be combined with action—for example, in reflecting on the effectiveness of one’s professional practices and community improvement efforts, including how to do program evaluations and community needs assessments, as well as the use of research in formulating new programs and policies. The course will introduce the student to some key ideas in the logic of research design, and will draw parallels between the criteria for rigorous research in the natural sciences and action-research used in professional practice and leadership in areas related to human services, education, community improvement and social change. Introduction to qualitative research methods will include the study of data gathering and analysis from participant observation, interviewing, story telling.

BS 141: Contemporary Issues and Ideas of Social Justice (5 semester units)

This course provides an elementary introduction to some contemporary issues and ideas about social justice, including issues of economic justice, rights for and inclusion of marginalized groups, and ideas about opportunity in a meritocracy, among others. Students explore some of the variety of issues, ideas and current discussions and debates about social justice. This exploration is relevant to students who eventually aim to assume positions of community leadership, jobs in community agencies, as well as for those aiming to do continuing studies and preparation for the helping professions or for grassroots activism. The course will expose the student to some historical perspectives on issues and ideas of social justice, as well.

BS 151: Contemporary Ideas in Natural Sciences in Today’s and Tomorrow’s World (5 semester units)

This course provides students with the opportunity to explore and reflect on some of the range of many contemporary ideas and developments in the natural sciences.  What are some of the latet breakthroughs?  The debates? The potential uses and abuses of science for human kind and the preservation of a sustainable planet? The ethical dilemmas and debates? Among the areas that students may choose to explore are: 1) human evolution; 2) ideas and uses of knowledge related to genetics, 3) origins of and evolution of life on earth, 3) origins and evolution of the universe, 4) climate change and life on earth, 5) quantum mechanics, and 6) artificial intelligence, among many other possibilities.

BS 161: Humanities and the Arts—and Leadership and Justice (5 semester units)

This course provides students with the opportunity to explore and reflect on a range of perspectives on the arts, literature, and philosophy—the humanities—as applied to issues and strategies relevant to social justice, community leadership, multiculturalism and social change. This course involves the study of how some of the methods and perspectives of humanities fields can be used by those involved as community and professional leaders, who are concerned with social justice.

BS 162: American History—Leadership and Justice (5 semester units)

This course is an introduction to a variety of perspectives on American history, many of which are not often included in mainstream history books. These perspectives include especially those historical perspectives that focus on the experiences of “ordinary” Americans, including the experiences of women, immigrants, working people, and those from varied cultural backgrounds.

BS 181:  Quantitative Reasoning (5 semester units)

This course provides students to develop a critical and informed understanding of the uses of quantitative methods to make sense out of contemporary social issues, trends and conditions. Students are not expected to learn the computational details, but rather will learn the uses of various methods, learn about the purposes as well as strengths and limitations of these methods. Emphasis will be on demystifying quantitative approaches to social issues and analyses. Topics covered will include: charts and graphs, scatterplots and dependent and independent variables, functions and rates of change, exponential, linear and logarithmic functions, indices, decision-making, measures of central tendency, inductive and deductive reasoning, normal distribution, conditional probability, and sampling surveys, among others. Students do not need to have mastered, or even studied, algebra, geometry or higher math. The innovative approach to this course is to enable students to understand the ideas underlying these methods without having to become lost in the mathematical details.

BS 242:  Issues and Strategies of Multiculturalism  (5 semester units)

This course is an introduction to: 1)  issues and practices pertaining to racism, bigotry and prejudice, as well as by contrast, multiculturalism, as manifested in everyday behaviors in today’s society as well as in systemic dynamics and patterns; 2) the history US ethnic groups in our multicultural society; 3) “bigger picture” perspectives on social change as related to racism, feminism, diversity, and multiculturalism; and 4) past, current, and proposed efforts to create a more just, equal and multicultural society.  This course is also an introduction to the study of societal and institutional arrangements and systemic patterns that promote or impede multiculturalism, including meritocracy, oligarchy, imperialism, colonialism, and democracy.

BS 243: Overview of Issues and Strategies of Community Leadership and Social Change (5 semester units)

This course provides an introductory overview to community leadership, looking at theories and strategies, as well as specific practices employed by a variety of community leaders. It includes a consideration of strategies of organizational leadership, change and development, as well as some grassroots activist approaches to  leadership, and also leadership from people acting as professionals in their fields of expertise.  Community leadership is considered for its implications in the pursuit of social justice, democracy, and multiculturalism, and in the context of different communities and different times in history. (Prerequisite:  60 semester units, BS 141, or permission of instructor.)

BS 291:  Community Practicum/Internship (1 – 20 semester units)

Community involvement—practicum/internship. This course gives students the opportunity to gain direct experience in the community—for example, in a community agency or grassroots organization—where they can learn or further develop leadership skills and other skills related to effective professional or volunteer community work. Students will also study, critically reflect on, and write about their community involvement experiences. As an option, students may also create their own community involvement project—for example, providing needed services, training, or assistance to others. . . .  [Determination of credits to be awarded—criteria used by WISR faculty:   As a starting point for negotiating and determining the appropriate amount of credit, students will be awarding one semester unit of credit for every 50 hours of substantial and valuable community involvement. In addition, students will receive added credit for the action-research and critically reflective writing done on their required paper. Students will receive an additional 3 semester units of credit, if their writing and additional action-research is comparable to the writing and research required for most 5 semester unit courses at WISR. They will receive an additional two semester units of credit, if, in conjunction with their community involvement, they do related readings, and submit an annotated bibliography of their readings, along with a brief essay on the connections between those readings and their community involvement.] (Open only to students with less than 60 semester units of credit; students with more than 60 semester units should enroll in BS 491. Students may enroll in BS 291 and/or BS 491, more than once, up to a maximum of 20 semester units of credit).

BS 293:  Directed Independent Study (1 – 15 semester units)

This course gives students the opportunity to study topics that fall within the domain of either general education or their major field of Community Leadership and Justice, but that cannot be easily incorporated into existing WISR courses. Or, such study gives students the opportunity to pursue a topic from one of the previous courses in greater depth. The form of independent study projects may vary—they can include, among other methods of learning—library and online research, interviews and observations in the community and other practice settings, creative writing, the use of multimedia, action-research projects, and projects or studies involving technology, among other possibilities. Regardless of the learning modalities used, as part of their independent study, students will critically reflect on, and write about their process and outcomes of their learning. Students have the options of pursuing collaborative projects and studies with other students. . . . Students with less than 60 semester units credit will enroll in BS 293; those with 60 semester units or more in BS 493. Each time a student enrolls in either BS 293 or 493, they will negotiate with faculty the semester units of credit to be awarded, based on the extent of  their studies to be done on the particular independent study project, based on WISR’s rigorous guidelines for awarding academic credit (see section on “grading and awarding credit”). In any case, over the entire period of their studies at WISR, no student may receive more than 15 semester units for these two courses (combined) toward the required 124 semester units.

BS 304 Collaborative Methods and Transformative Learning (5 semester units)

This course focuses on the study of methods of collaboration—between individuals, and among a number of individuals in a group, organization or community. What are the qualities that go into collaborative work that is creative, productive and involves the active participation of all? What is the value of collaboration—what are its advantages and potential, as compared to isolated work of individuals?  What are different types of collaboration, for example, intentional collaboration where two or more people consciously embark on a project together, or as another example, where collaboration happens informally, and perhaps accidentally or even without explicit intentions on the part of all involved? The course provides students with opportunities to learn about collaboration, through interviewing those who have collaborated with others, by reading about collaboration, and by trying out a modest collaborative effort or two. (Prerequisite: 60 semester units or permission of instructor.)

BS 311:  Advanced Studies in Action-Research (5 semester units)

The course builds on Introduction to Action-Research (BS 111). This course will cover similar content, but in much greater depth, and with the goal of enabling the student developing the capability of independently designing and conducting his or her action-research projects, either on her or his own or with a lead role in collaborating with others. Further study of methods of action-research, including methods of qualitative research and participatory research. This course will explore a variety of ways in which research can be combined with action—for example, in reflecting on the effectiveness of one’s professional practices and community improvement efforts, including how to do program evaluations and community needs assessments, as well as the use of research in formulating new programs and policies. The course will involve an indepth and critical analysis of  key ideas in the logic of research design, including the concepts of validity and reliability—drawing and critically examining parallels between the criteria for rigorous research in the natural sciences and action-research used in professional practice and leadership in areas related to human services, education, community improvement and social change. Advanced study of methods of data gathering and analysis from participant observation, interviewing, story telling. (Prerequisite:  BS 111, 60 semester units of credit, or permission of instructor.)

BS 341: History of, and Contemporary, Issues and Ideas Regarding Social Justice—Advanced Studies (5 semester units)

First, This course addresses such contemporary and historical issues as: a) discrimination toward lower-income workers; b) the values and consequences of the myth of the meritocracy; c) the role of education in a democracy; d) oligarchic threats to democracy; e) economic injustice; f) racism, diversity and multiculturalism; g) the consequences and challenges of globalization; h) sustainability, climate change, and the role of politics and the economy; i) mass incarceration; j) human dignity and social abuse; k) a critical assessment of the society’s impact on self and family; and m) colonialism and its consequences. Secondly, more broadly, the course includes a) the study of critical perspectives on American history, b) a consideration of social philosophy and ideology, and c) the study of people and leaders who have worked for social justice and change. (Prerequisite: BS 141, 60 semester units of credit, or permission of instructor.)

BS 371: Advanced Writing and Communication (5 semester units)

Writing is taught across the curriculum at WISR—in each course and project that the student pursues. This course provides students with an opportunity to focus intensely on developing their skill and comfort in writing. There are several readings that will support this process. However, these readings are not primarily oriented to the rules of grammar and the techniques of producing a written product. Those rules and techniques will be discussed from time to time, but more emphasis will be on addressing the fears and inhibitions that impede one’s practice of writing. Emphasis will also be given to writing in one’s own voice, and to develop a level of comfort that will encourage the student to experiment with different styles and approaches to writing—ranging from technical to creative to narrative storytelling, among others. Consideration will also be given to one’s audience(s) and how to clearly communicate with your audience(s) in an engaging way that will capture their interest. (Prerequisite:  60 semester units or permission of instructor.)

BS 402:  Advanced Studies in Building Bridges to One’s Future (5 semester units)

How this course relates to the entire learning experience at WISR . . .

WISR’s history is indeed the stories of our students successfully building bridges to the significant things they next want to do in their lives. Our alumni have used their academic projects at WISR to network with professionals and community groups, to create new programs and even new agencies, to carve out distinctive and well-recognized specializations and consulting practices, and to obtain professional positions that carry significant and meaningful responsibilities.

WISR aims to educate students to be self-directing learners able to envision and build bridges to endeavors that will allow them to pursue their interests, purposes and passion, and so that they may create a better future rather than unthinkingly conforming to existing options.  Because WISR’s curriculum is looking to create a better future, a better tomorrow, it will not neatly conform to the content of existing professions and disciplines. WISR draws and builds on knowledge from existing professions and fields of study, but also engage our students and faculty in creative action-inquiry that will often lead to new professional and career options, new practices and new knowledge, and new ways of using expertise for the social good.

  • Students will learn about conventional definitions of the professions—today and over the past hundred plus years, and they will consider the strengths and limitations of these definitions in the context of their commitments, values and aspirations.
  • Students will study current, and projected future, societal dynamics, and will develop a their own personal, and critically and imaginatively informed perspective, on the challenges and opportunities posed by these dynamics.
  • Students will develop a plan that lays out at least two options for themselves, regarding next steps, challenges and opportunities, and long-term goals for building bridges to their future, as well as plans for how to get more information and next steps for types of projects to pursue in their coursework at WISR—to aid the exploration and pursuit of this plan.

(Prerequisite:  60 semester units of credit or permission of instructor.)

BS 441: Theories and Strategies of Community Leadership and Social Change (5 semester units)

First, this course addresses such leadership issues and methods as: a) participatory and inquiring leadership—theory and practice;  b) creativity and innovation; c) the role of feminism; d) psychological/emotional transformation and awareness, cognitive framing, and leadership for social change; e) the role of communication and collaboration in leadership and social change.  This course also includes the study of f) models/examples/stories of leadership, and g) strategies of community involvement and community organizing. Secondly, more broadly, the course includes a consideration of theories and strategies of social change challenges posed by: a)  the current trend in our society toward an oligarchy and increased inequality; b) how people’s personal troubles are intertwined with larger societal issues and dynamics; c) internalizing the consciousness of the oppressor and other difficult psychological dynamics; d) globalization; e) mass incarceration in a democratic society; f) by technology (as well as the opportunities created;  and g) racism and oppression. Third, more broadly, the course engages students in a critical analysis of broader perspectives:  a) theoretical analyses and calls to action by social critics; b) analyses about socialism, capitalism and social justice; c) local strategies and alternative economics; d) the professions and social change;  and e) the larger challenges to work for sustainability and the preservation of the planet. (Prerequisite:  BS 243, 60 semester units, or permission of instructor.)

BS 442:  Issues and Strategies of Multiculturalism—Advanced Studies (5 semester units)

This course involves the study of: 1)  issues and practices pertaining to racism, bigotry and prejudice, as well as by contrast, multiculturalism, as manifested in everyday behaviors in today’s society as well as in systemic dynamics and patterns; 2) the history US ethnic groups in our multicultural society; 3) “bigger picture” perspectives on social change as related to racism, feminism, diversity, and multiculturalism; and 4) past, current, and proposed efforts to create a more just, equal and multicultural society.  This course involves also the study of societal and institutional arrangements and systemic patterns that promote or impede multiculturalism, including meritocracy, oligarchy, imperialism, colonialism, and democracy.  Finally, the course engages students in active reflection on developing solutions to problems and alternatives to existing practices and institutionalized patterns. (Prerequisite:  BS 242, 60 semester units, or permission of instructor.)

BS 446: Sustainability and Social Change (5 semester units)

This course explores issues, studies and possible solutions regarding the environmental crisis, and prospects for sustainability and social change. It draws on current issues and trends, scientific research, and social/political/economic analyses. Study of possible solutions and varied facets of the environmental crisis, with emphasis on the importance of developing  an integraed, holistic analysis and strategy. (Prerequisites: 60 semester units, BS 141, or permission of instructor.)

BS 451: Narrative Approaches to Professional Practice in Community Leadership (5 semester units)

This course is an examination of the uses of storytelling in various different fields of professional practice, as well as part of communication strategies in community and professional leadership. Examples of fields using these narrative approaches are narrative therapy and narrative medicine. The course will examine the values and uses of these narrative approaches, and consider how they can be applied in new fields, as well as their value in effective written and oral communication. The course will also consider the value of storytelling to the development and learning of the storyteller, as well as for those who are learning by reading or listening to the stories.  Narrative approaches will also be examined as a strategy for collaboration and action-inquiry. (Prerequisite:  60 semester units of credit or permission of instructor).

BS 490:  Senior Thesis (15 semester units)

 The Senior Thesis is an in depth study of a topic of strong interest to the student, and one that generally helps the student build bridges for him/herself to the next important things she or he wishes to do with her/his life—as a community and professional leader. The student makes use of what he or she has learned at WISR about action-research methods to do a serious and substantial inquiry, and an inquiry that is based on action and/or that has action implications of some significance to the student and/or others. In most cases, the Senior Thesis provides students with the opportunity to build on, to critically reflect on, and to synthesize, many of the thing they have previously learned.

BS 491:  Community Practicum/Internship (1 – 20 semester units)

This course provides an elementary introduction to some contemporary issues and ideas about social justice, including issues of economic justice, rights for and inclusion of marginalized groups, and ideas about opportunity in a meritocracy, among others. Students explore some of the variety of issues, ideas and current discussions and debates about social justice. This exploration is relevant to students who eventually aim to assume positions of community leadership, jobs in community agencies, as well as for those aiming to do continuing studies and preparation for the helping professions or for grassroots activism. The course will expose the student to some historical perspectives on issues and ideas of social justice, as well. (Open only to students with more than 60 semester units of credit; students with less than 60 semester units should enroll in BS 291. Students may enroll in BS 291 and/or BS 491, more than once, up to a maximum of 20 semester units of credit).

BS 493:  Directed Independent Study (1 – 15 semester units)

This course gives students the opportunity to study topics that fall within the domain of either general education or their major field of Community Leadership and Justice, but that cannot be easily incorporated into existing WISR courses. Or, such study gives students the opportunity to pursue a topic from one of the previous courses in greater depth. The form of independent study projects may vary—they can include, among other methods of learning—library and online research, interviews and observations in the community and other practice settings, creative writing, the use of multimedia, action-research projects, and projects or studies involving technology, among other possibilities. Regardless of the learning modalities used, as part of their independent study, students will critically reflect on, and write about their process and outcomes of their learning. Students have the options of pursuing collaborative projects and studies with other students. . . . Students with less than 60 semester units credit will enroll in BS 293; those with 60 semester units or more in BS 493. Each time a student enrolls in either BS 293 or 493, they will negotiate with faculty the semester units of credit to be awarded, based on the extent of  their studies to be done on the particular independent study project, based on WISR’s rigorous guidelines for awarding academic credit (see section on “grading and awarding credit”). In any case, over the entire period of their studies at WISR, no student may receive more than 15 semester units for these two courses (combined) toward the required 124 semester units.

BS 496:  Review and Assessment of Knowledge in One’s Field of Specialization (5 semester units)

This course gives students the opportunity to do extensive, in depth study of a topic that is of great interest to them, and that relates to this interdisciplinary major of Community Leadership and Justice. Students will review the literature in their field of specialization, and/or survey and study existing practices in the field. These in-depth studies may include, among other methods of learning, library and online research, as well as interviews and observations in the community and other practice settings. The student may also write analytically about insights from their previous experiences and studies related to the topic.